Clean water is a basic human need. Humans cannot live without water, especially clean water. Humans need clean water for various activities such as bathing, washing, drinking, industrial processes, etc. The need for clean water continues to increase at any time, no matter whether you live on the coast or in an area with bad freshwater sources, you must have clean water to survive. To overcome this problem, water treatment technology emerged. This water treatment technology is called desalination. There are two types of desalination technology today, they are Reverse Osmosis (RO) and edr water treatment, or often called Electrodialysis Reversal (EDR).
RO technology is one of the most effective technologies in processing brackish water into freshwater because it uses a membrane that can reduce salt levels by up to 95%. The desalination method with RO technology is often used by developed countries such as Saudi Arabia, England, Cyprus, etc., to convert seawater into freshwater. RO technology requires high energy and considerable operational costs, so it is not suitable for all people.
The pressure required for edr water treatment is lower than RO technology. EDR membrane ability is more durable than RO because of EDR process can minimize the occurrence of fouling on the membrane. Also, the investment and operational costs of EDR are lower than RO due to the use of fewer chemicals in pretreatment. The energy used by EDR is electricity so it is more affordable and easy to obtain. Because of these advantages, EDR technology has taken a new direction in water purification and restoration techniques that have never existed before in meeting basic human and industrial needs. In the industrial sector, EDR technology can be applied for industrial wastewater recovery. Industrial companies will be protected from porous and damaged pipe systems due to calcium and magnesium deposits in hard water.
Finally, Reversal Electrodialysis (EDR) is a separation process using a cation exchange membrane, where ions move from one solution to another through the membrane due to the difference in electrical voltage. This process takes place in a place called the electrodialysis cell. In the industrial sector, edr water treatment techniques are widely used in seawater desalination, drinking water production, water separation from waste, pre-demineralization for boiler purposes, also in food and beverage factories, for example, to reduce sour taste in fruit juices, etc.
The advantages of EDR include better water recovery rates, even if the raw water contains high sulfate content. The lifetime of the membrane is up to 7-10 years, it can be operated at high temperatures, the membrane can withstand chloride and high pH, the process is easy to adjust to various raw water qualities, the EDR machine is easy to operate at start-up and shut-down when used briefly.